Solids-involved equipment are important pieces of many processes. Solids are often more difficult to handle than liquids because the process equipment consumes more energy to operate, are more prone to mechanical failure, and can create dust. Dusts can be very dangerous. They can cause respiratory illnesses and, in cases of...
The following bibliography developed in conjunction with the research project AMoney Morals:
The Decline of the Naira in the Social Life and Popular Culture of Nigeria, 1985B1995,@
undertaken by Jane Guyer and LaRay Denzer.
To prepare this bibliography, Northwestern University=s Online Catalog (NUcat) and
Northwestern=s online catalog of papers presented...
Though brief, this study has benefited from the intellectual and moral support of many individuals. I
owe an enormous debt of gratitude to colleagues who have provided me with both their time and
criticism in the preparation of this paper. I am particularly grateful to those who have been most...
This paper was commissioned by the Program of African Studies (PAS) as a complement
to the new edition of Dahomean Narrative that was published by Northwestern University Press
as part of the celebration of the PAS’s fiftieth anniversary. The new forward to the volume
places Dahomean Narrative within the history...
This paper explores the relationship between the French state and francophone Africa since
decolonization, rather than narrating the history of French-African policies (Domergue-Cloarec 1994;
Wauthier 1995) or providing an introduction to the full range of cultural, social, and political relations
(Manning 1988; Chipman 1989; Andereggen 1994). The focus is...
The primer addresses interdisciplinary work on two levels. It outlines and exemplifies
anthropological modes of thinking, and how those can be applied to numbers through the capacities of the
Epi Info program. At a more practical level it uses particular material to guide the reader through setup
The completion of this study could not have been possible without the invaluable support
of several individuals. This work is a revised version of my first year research paper, and as such,
I would first like to thank Timothy Breen and my colleagues in the E-70 seminar for their
This collection of papers contains most of the papers that were delivered at the workshop on
“Normality in Health and the Reproductive Body” at Northwestern in March 2001. The seminar
was used to discuss individual research projects around convergences of thought on the theme at
hand. In their present state,...
The items in this publication are partially derived from presentations given at a
symposium on Arabic Literature of Africa (ALA), at the Program of African
Studies in November 2003. Also included is some detailed information on the
contents of already published volumes (ALA I, II, IIIA, IV), and "Overviews" of...
On 6 February 2007, President Bush announced that the United States would
create a new military command for Africa, to be known as Africa Command or Africom.
Throughout the Cold War and for more than a decade afterwards, the U.S. did not have a
military command for Africa; instead, U.S....
As a world power after World War II, some U.S. government officials and private
foundations realized how little we knew of Africa, though allied troops had been engaged
in North Africa and transported through West Africa. And the Cold War was leading to
growing USSR influence in Africa. “It...
Writing this keynote address has been a fraught and sobering experience, heightened by
an acute feeling of stepping outside my scholarly comfort zone in east and central African
history before the 19th century CE. The discomfort encouraged me to shift positions, in this case
from that of a scholar writing...
Within Kenya’s political scene, racial and ethnic identities play a crucial role in creating division
in Muslims’ political engagement. Since independence, the racial and ethnic antagonism among
them has weakened a united Muslim’ voice whenever political issues concerning the community
arose. As Kenya was preparing for independence, a section of...
How could so many students of one scholar, one who is not immediately
remembered for his work on the arts, have produced so much major research on African
and African-American arts and artists in virtually all media? This question became the
genesis of this panel; but before turning to our...
Contemporary pattern of relationship between European Union and Africa-Caribbean and
Pacific countries reflects more than two centuries of unequal exchange. Unequal exchange
between the North and the South denotes the falling terms of trade for underdeveloped countries,
while correspondingly increasing the terms of trade for the developed countries. It has...
This paper examines participation in the public economy among two groups of African women, the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria and the Baganda of central Uganda, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The analysis considers many kinds of economic activity other than growing food for one’s own family, including independent income-generating...
The apparent interest today in Nigerian visual culture has necessitated this paper. Therefore, its
primary focus shall be on the status of visual data from the burgeoning ephemera as a source of
historical knowledge. Using selected visual illustrations in the posters, cartoons and photographs
that were at the core of...
This working paper surveys Islamic organizations, movements, and ideologies in Nigeria, roughly identifying them along the lines of Islamic traditionalism, Sufi orders (turuq lit. pathways), Salafi/Wahhabi revivalism2 modernist and insurgent Islam(ism), trado-Islamic and Christo-Islamic syncretism and deviant “Islamic” cultism. Previous academic studies of Nigerian Islam were often limited to the...
As the result of centuries of transregional commerce by Muslim merchants and the attendant networks developed by Muslim scholarly families, Islam was well established in the Sahel and Upper Guinea Coast by the seventeenth century. Commercial markets, Muslim states and Islamic institutions developed during a long, generally peaceful process of...
In May 1991 the allied armies of the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) and the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) overthrew the 27-year military regime (Dergue) in Ethiopia. During the succeeding 27 years, the EPRDF-dominated government attracted one of the highest per capita levels of external aid in the...
The term Connected Vehicle (CV) is broadly used to identify any ‘smart vehicle’ with wireless connectivity to the roadside infrastructure and other vehicles. CVs that can be driven autonomously are called connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs). With real-time communication and data transmission capability, CAVs have the potential to improve the transportation...
Aerospace collectively represents one of the most sophisticated technological endeavors and largest markets in the
world. Coming with substantial costs, nearly every aspect of the industry, from aircraft design to material selection
to operation, has been optimized in at least one way. A critical design consideration in any aircraft is...
Optimization and Game Theory have certain conceptual overlaps. It is even said that John von Neumann
conjectured the Duality Theorem using information from his game theory. This article discusses two optimization
applications to the game theory: a methodology for solving the Nash Equilibrium and a decentralized model in
This article concerns the exponential transformation method for globally solving posynomial (or general
geometric/signomial) optimization problems with nonconvex objective functions or constraints. A discussion of the
method's development and use will be presented.
Logarithmic transformation is a method used to change geometric programs into their convex forms. A
geometric program, or GP, is a type of global optimization problem that concerns minimizing a subject to
constraint functions so as to allow one to solve unique non-linear programming problems. All geometric programs
McCormick Envelopes are a type of convex relaxation used in
bilinear Non Linear Programming problems. Many times these
envelopes are used to solve a Mixed Integer Non Linear
Programming problem by relaxing the MINLP problem so that
it becomes a convex NLP. Solving this convex NLP will
provide a lower...
Spatial branch-and-bound is a divide-and-conquer technique used to find the deterministic solution of global optimization
problems.1 It is a type of branch-and-bound method, which solves for the set of parameters that globally optimize the
objective function, whether that be finding the minimum or maximum value of or , respectively, where...
Computational complexity refers to the amount of resources
required to solve a type of problem by systematic application of an
algorithm. Resources that can be considered include the amount of
communications, gates in a circuit, or the number of processors.
Because the size of the particular input to a problem...
The objective of game theory is to analyze the relationship
between decision-making situations in order to achieve a
desirable outcome. The theory can be applied to a wide range
of applications, including, but not limited to, economics,
politics and even the biological sciences. In essence, game
theory serves as means...
Network Flow Optimization problems form the most special class of linear programming problems.
Transportation, electric, and communication networks are clearly common applications of Network Optimization.
These types of problems can be viewed as minimizing transportation problems. This Network problem will include
cost of moving materials through a network involving varying...
Interior point methods are a type of algorithm that are used in
solving both linear and nonlinear convex optimization
problems that contain inequalities as constraints. The LP
Interior-Point method relies on having a linear programming
model with the objective function and all constraints being
continuous and twice continuously differentiable. In...
Optimization with absolute values is a special case of linear programming in which a problem made nonlinear due
to the presence of absolute values is solved using linear programming methods.
Absolute value functions themselves are very difficult to perform standard optimization procedures on. They are
not continuously differentiable functions, are...