Introduction to Part II

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As many systems of military and autocratic rule came under challenge in Africa, Nigeria lost its leadership position in a democratizing era with the collapse of the Second Republic, 1979-1983. Four military heads-of-state followed. One of the most hopeful transitional experiments in Africa, conducted under General Ibrahim Babangida, 1985-1993, ended in disarray and the emergence of the most dictatorial system in the country’s history, led by General Sani Abacha. This tumultuous era ended with the return to power in 1999, as a civilian president, of the former military ruler, General (rtd) Olusegun Obasanjo.

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