Most people imagine hacking to be an exceedingly complex crime, requiring an understanding of computing systems that goes far beyond that of average, functionally literate PC users. While there are sophisticated hacking techniques which do fit this description, many forms of hacking require little more than the ability to install basic programs on a computer. Perhaps the simplest of all forms of hacking is DDoS , or Denial of Service attack. DDoS is a simple brute-force method that spams a server with millions of identical simple requests, which can cause sites and providers to be overloaded and temporarily shut down. Users can simply band together and use their combined computing power to take down a target, as notable attacks on Donald Trump ’s and even the CIA’s websites have illustrated. More sophisticated DDoS attacks have employed “Trojans” or other viruses to take control of the computers of virtual bystanders and used them to perpetrate these types of attacks unawares. While DDoS usually fails to permanently bring down websites, it is also almost impossible to stop completely, since simple request-overload is not something most normal programs guard against.